Ancient Science of Agriculture

The earliest mention about Agriculture is about Balarama who is considered as god of Agriculture and Errigation. Balarama is “Hal Dhar” (once who have Hal or Plough).
Balarama made many canals in his times and he encourage agriculture. Balarama’s weapons are a mace and a plough. Plough as a weapon is certainly an indication of his association with agriculture.
Balarama helped five Pandava to built Indraprashtha Nagari for six years (from 3195 BCE to 3189 BC) in Khandava Forest. He made the land plane by using his plough.
Agriculture being the focal point of the socio religious life resulted in the technology of agriculture being well planned. Rain gauges were thought of and a sort of calendar for saving, mid treatment of crops harvesting etc. was developed based on almanac Computations and observations of seasonal changes.
Most of the social, religious customs were mainly associated with the agricultural practices, like ploughing, sowing, reaping and harvesting. The study of crops and plants, received considerable attention of the ancient Indians.
Sharp iron implements were effectively used for cultivation of land and establishment of new settlement. Agricultural practices like treatment of seeds, preparation of the soil, rotation of crops and protection of crops from diseases and pests etc., are also old in India.
The rice did not appear in the Rigveda. The later Vedic literature contains reference to rice, wheat, and barley of different varieties.
Archaeological findings have revealed that rice was a domesticated crop grown along the banks of the Ganges in the sixth millennium BC. Later, it extended to other areas.
The origin of manuring can be traced back as early as Rigveda. It gives reference of some items that were thrown into the ground for increasing the fertility of soil.
The Atharvaveda refers to the value of the manures prepared from straw of barley and sesame plants which were used to improve the productivity of the land. The use of dry cow-dung as a manure has also been mentioned in the Atharvaveda.
The contribution of ancient India to the knowledge of plant and plant life was also of no mean order. This was developed in association with the studies of agriculture and medicine.
Classifications of herbs into seven types have been described in the Rigveda and Atharvaveda on the basis of morphological and other general characteristics.
Early farmers in India also raised livestock, such as cattle, sheep, and goats. However, for making clothing they used the cotton plant instead of animals. Cotton is a plant native to India.

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